Landmarks refer to well-known areas or structures for people to recognize their location.
Landmarks around the world are often related to the history, historical events that had occurred, or achievements in the place.
Landmarks are considered structure environments, which form points for references in orientation, how one can find their way around the area or communicate with others.
Cognitive anchors and markers will be formed with the existence of landmarks. It may appear in drawings and brochures, with descriptions of various meeting areas or pathways.
This makes landmarks crucial as it plays an important role in spatial cognition and communication among people.
What are the types and features of landmarks
There are four types of landmarks, known as history and culture, size, uniqueness and visual form.
Landmarks that are based on history and culture are known for their importance in history and historical events.
Landmarks that are based on size are known for their volume, height, and scale.
Landmarks that are based on uniqueness are special and are named eccentrically.
Landmarks that are based on visual form are visually unusual and distinctive in their design.
Landmark and monument can be similar, as both function as attractions and directional references.
However, monuments are structures that were built to commemorate an occasion or a figure, which is significant and relevant to a social group.
As for landmarks, features must have recognizable artificial or natural features that are different from other features in the environment. It must be seen from a far distance.
It is important to note that monuments can be considered as landmarks, to identify directions around the area.
The Statue of Liberty is known as “The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World”, located in New York, USA.
The Statue of Liberty is known as a sign of freedom and democracy worldwide, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the United States.
It was dedicated on the 28th October 1886.
In 1924, the Statue of Liberty became a National Monument.
Since 1933, The Statue of Liberty has been taken care of by the employees of the National Park Service.
The Eiffel Tower is located in Paris, the north of France.
The construction of the Eiffel Tower first started on January 26, 1887. It was then completed 2 years, 2 months and 5 days later, on March 31, 1889.
Before the completion of the Eiffel Tower, it was met with criticisms and debates. The criticisms faded once the Tower had been completed.
The design of the Eiffel Tower was well received after the completion of the construction, with two million visitors visiting the World’s Fair in 1889.
The Big Ben is a tower clock located in London, the United Kingdom.
The tower clock is well-known for the time accuracy and the huge bell. The name “Big Ben” refers to the great hour bell, weighing about 15.1 tons. Though, the name is now frequently associated with the entire tower clock.
The Big Ben was known formally as the St. Stephen Tower, before it was renamed as the Elizabeth Tower. The renaming of the tower clock was to celebrate Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee.
Although the tower clock has been repaired and restored throughout the years, the Big Ben will only ring for special events that occur in the United Kingdom. For example, New Year’s Eve and Remembrance Sunday.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa is known as Torre Pendente di Pisa, located in the city of Pisa, Italy.
It was first constructed in 1173, then completed in 1399.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa's original height was 60 metres, weighing about 14,500 tonnes. Now the Tower is 56.67 metres on its highest side, and 55.86 metres on the lower side.
The last element in the complement of the ceremonial complex of monuments which enriches the Piazza dei Miracoli, is represented by The Leaning Tower of Pisa.
There are four representative monuments in the city, known as the Cathedral of Pisa, the Baptistry, the Bell Tower of Pisa, and the Monumental Cemetery,
The architecture style of the Leaning Tower of Pisa references the mediaeval architecture, in the Romanesque style.
The Colosseum is located in Rome, at the capital of Italy.
The Colosseum was built in an area which houses various main buildings of power, and to the large square, where the population was at.
It was a lively place, where people host weddings, parties, meetings of the community and other types of events.
However, in the present time, major avenues surround the Colosseum. The increased discharge of exhausts from millions of vehicles has led to the degradation of the building.
To prevent degradation of the Colosseum, preventive measures against pollution have been taken in order to preserve the historical building.
The Empire State Building is located in New York City, in the United States of America.
It is a steel-framed skyscraper that has 102 stories.
The construction of the building started on 17 March 1930, and was completed in 1971.
It is still considered as one of the most distinctive and well-known buildings in the United States of America, one of the finest designs in Modernist Art Deco.
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in 1931, with a height of 381 metres. It was then replaced by One World Trade Centre as the tallest building in 1972.
The Tokyo Tower is located in the centre of Tokyo, Japan.
The Tokyo Tower is the world’s tallest self-supported steel tower (333 metres), it is taller than the Eiffel Tower by 3 metres.
The Tokyo Tower represents Japan’s major economic power after the post-war rebirth. It was Japan’s tallest structure in 1958, until the complete construction of Tokyo Skytree in 2012.
Besides being a tourist attraction, the Tokyo Tower is used as a broadcast antenna. Visitors may visit the Tokyo Tower for an amazing bird’s eye view of the city, and see Tokyo Skytree or Mount Fuji in the distance.
The La Sagrada Família is a cathedral that is located in Barcelona, Spain.
The construction of the La Sagrada Família began in 1882, it is still incomplete in its construction at the present.
The cathedral is one of the most well-known landmarks in Barcelona, with flying buttresses and twisted towers implemented in its design.
As Christianity was on decline in 1882, the La Sagrada Família was built and funded by donations to encourage Christianity in Barcelona.
The original design of La Sagrada Família was supposed to be neo-Gothic, it was then changed by Antonio Gaudí to a design based on geometric forms which can be found in natural environments.
The design that was changed embodied the expressionist vision of Antonio Gaudí regarding the 20th century cathedral, visualizing the mysteries of Christian faith with symbols.
Most of the La Sagrada Família designs and models by Antonio Gaudí were destroyed in the Spanish Civil War. The designs were shown to be capable of accommodating 13,000 people.
With only a basic basilica plan, the La Sagrada Família was built with the Latin cross surrounded by porticoes on three sides, the Nativity facade on the east with scenes of Jesus’s birth celebration. The Passion facade is located on the west, showing the crucifixion of Jesus, and the Glory facade on the main entrance, which is to show how people may celebrate the Divine Glory.
After the death of Antonio Gaudí in 1926, only the construction of one tower - the Nativity facade, was completed.
La Sagrada Família was then added as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984.
I hope the information available helps you to understand more about landmarks around the world. As this article may serve as an aid to help you recognize the different landmarks around the world and how you may share this information with your child.